Town Float, or North Dock
The Town Float, later to become known as the North Dock, was created by diverting a section of the River Tawe into a newly-excavated channel known as the New Cut, and converting the original section of river bed into a 'floating dock' - that is to say, a dock in which ships could remain afloat at all times as opposed to being grounded on low tides.
The excavation of the New Cut commenced in 1840 and was completed in 1845. The first ship to sail the length of the New Cut was the brig 'Charles Clarke' on the 11th March of that year. The Cambrian newspaper reported that "she passed through amidst the firing of guns, etc., in the most gallant style without touching either sides or bottom or meeting any obstruction to her free navigation".
By 1851 the top 'Pottery' lock and the seaward lock of the North Dock had been completed, and on the 1st January 1852 the dock was formally opened as the paddle steamer 'Lord Beresford' sailed in from the River Tawe to become the first ship to enter Swansea's new 'floating dock'.
The construction of the lower North Dock Basin was commenced in 1859 and completed the following year. In 1897 the reinforced-concrete Weavers building was erected on the north-east side of the basin, fronted by Victoria Wharf. In 1902 the installation of a new lock entrance into the North Dock Basin was completed, allowing an increased draft (depth) of ship that could enter from the original 26 feet (8 metres) to around 32 feet (9.75 metres).
By the 1920s the North Dock had become largely redundant as the centre of Swansea's shipping trade had moved over to the east side of the River Tawe with the development of the Prince of Wales Dock, Kings Dock and Queens Dock. In 1930 the North Dock was finally closed to shipping, although the North Dock Basin remained open until 1969. It was filled in after closure and the area is now occupied by Sainsbury's supermarket and car park.
The next two images show the North Dock in 1934, having closed to shipping in 1930
North Dock Basin
The following was taken from an advertising poster issued by Swansea Harbour Trust:
SWANSEA HARBOUR TRUST
North South and Beaufort Docks 34-1/2 acres
Great reduction on shipping or Tonnage Rates and Abolishment of levelling Charges
IMPORTANT TO ALL VESSELS VISITING SOUTH WALES PORTS
Giving the Ship owner The choice of Ports and greater command of the Freight Market. The only Telegraphic Ship Signal System in the Bristol Channel is OPEN on the Mumbles Head at the Lighthouse belonging to Swansea Harbour Trust directly connected with the General Post Office system of Telegraphs and Officially styled ‘’Swansea Bay’’ Ship Owners, Brokers and others desirous of having their Vessels reporting direct to them will be good enough to signify the same to the General Superintendent of Swansea Harbour, charges as customary.
Messages filed by Vessels calling for ‘Orders’ open for this purpose day and night Swansea is the first Port in the Bristol Channel, 85 miles from Lundy Vessels can enter the Bay and find good sheltered anchorage under the Mumbles Head at any state of the tide, free of all charges whatever. Full particulars and every information may be obtained by application either personally or by letter of Mr. Capper General Superintendent of Swansea Harbour, Harbour Office Swansea. Steamers chartered for the South Wales Ports, save one or two, if not 3 Tides, by loading and discharging at Swansea, and the cost of some hours steaming up the Channel past that Port, and down again to Sea
NEW EAST DOCK OF 29-1/4 ACRES WILL GIVE 6ft ADDITIONAL DEPTH OF WATER
The new modern improvements including the introduction of a Patent Dioptric Lens has been recently applied to the Mumbles Lighthouse and maintained by the Harbour Trustees free of charge to the Shipping now consists of one large lantern 114ft above the sea. Exhibiting a bright fixed light distinctly visible in clear weather 18 to 20 miles distance. It is in Lat’51 Lon’3-57-20 West.
The postal office telegraph is immediately opposite the Harbour Office
The population of Swansea is 20000 in the last census. It has almost doubled in 20 years
Shipping Office for Seamen and the Sailors Home next to the Harbour Office
Steamers are not required to Wait Turn at the Roadstead and are docked with the assistance of Tugs.
The Lock Gates are of Iron and Timber and worked by Hydraulic Power. Erected by William Armstrong are the fixed and portable Cranes and Coal Hoists.
Direct Railway communications from the ships side in the dock and new cut to all parts of the Kingdom.
Ships can obtain water direct from the Corporation Water Works where mains run along the quay.
Vessels frequenting the Docks are allowed to adjust companies free
Coal from the well known Aberdare and member coal fields shipped to any extent with utmost dispatch
Depth of Water at entrance of Harbour, 28ft O.S.T. (being deepened) Deepest Dock Cill 26ft Springs, 18ft Neaps.
Full particulars and every information may be obtained by application either personally or by letter of Mr. Capper General Superintendent of Swansea Harbour Trust